A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle – AV, driverless car, robo-car or robotic car, is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with little or no human input. Term autonomous cars now sound quite familiar to us, and it feels like it would come to our lives sooner. Cars are becoming smarter; they sense danger and detect the driver’s stress level.
Autonomous cars are in which human drivers are never required to take control to safely operate the vehicle. Also known as ‘self driving’ or ‘driverless’ cars, they combine sensors and software to control, navigate, and drive the vehicle.
Self-driving cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Driving automation has six levels which are used by experts and defined by the J2016 standard in 2016 & 2018, from SOCIETY AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (SAE). The self-driving car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with little or no human input.
The Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) has defined 6 levels of vehicle autonomy by SAE:
Level 0: This one is pretty basic. The driver (human) controls it all: steering, brakes, throttle, power. It’s what you’ve been doing all along. At first, the SAE standard defined level 0 as ‘no driver assistance at all’, but the vehicle with a simple warning system is also considered as a level 0 car. Still, the driver has to take charge of controlling the vehicle.
Level 1: This driver-assistance level means that most functions are still controlled by the driver. Specific function (like steering or accelerating) can be done automatically by the car. Driver and the system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls engine power to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power to maintain and vary the speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC). Lane Keeping Assistance is another example of level 1 self-driving.
Level 2: The vehicle can control both steering and accelerate/decelerating, though a human sitting in the driver’s seat must take control of the car at any time when it is necessary. It means that the “driver is disengaged from physically operating the vehicle by having his or her hands off the steering wheel AND foot off the pedal at the same time, according to the SAE. The driver must still always be ready to take control of the vehicle, however. expands the meaning of advanced driver assistance systems(ADAS).
Most of Hyundai Motor Group(HMG)’s vehicles are at Level 2. From Hyundai Kona and Ioniq from Kia Seltos, all of them house HDA system as an option. This kind of system is now considered as merely user convenience. HDA allows vehicles to maintain the speed and a safe distance from the vehicle ahead in a highway.
Level 3: Drivers are still necessary for level 3 cars, but are able to completely shift “safety-critical functions” to the vehicle, under certain traffic or environmental conditions. It means that the driver is still present and will intervene if necessary, but is not required to monitor the situation in the same way it does for the previous levels. Jim McBride, the autonomous vehicles expert at Ford, said this is “the biggest demarcation is between Levels 3 and 4”. The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie. The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking.
Also vehicle can detect everything around and can make decisions for itself under certain conditions such as on a highway, ?but in any case, the driver must be alert and ready to take manual control at any time. The vehicle cannot guarantee the safety of the passengers when it alerts the driver to take control, so the driver should be always ready for such circumstances.
Level 4: As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or reading books. The vehicle can operate in the self-driving mode most of the time. There are a steering wheel and acceleration/braking pedals for the driver in case of emergency, but they are not frequently used. The Level 4 system, however, cannot operate the vehicle when it runs under certain conditions, e.g., when it is off-road. The driver should take control then.
Level 5: No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi. Vehicle means it does not require the driver’s attention. You can even take the steering wheel or acceleration/braking pedals away from a Level 5 vehicle. The vehicle will be free from GPS or navigation systems, able to go anywhere and do anything that a driver can do. Fully autonomous cars are undergoing testing in several places, but none are yet available to the general public. Vehicles are completely capable of handling any road conditions or type of weather. This refers to a fully-autonomous system that expects the vehicle’s performance to equal that of a human driver.
In order for fully autonomous vehicles to be developed, high-performance artificial intelligence must be created in advance. In other words, cars should be able to think and act like humans.
Autonomous cars won’t work until we have 5G to make everything connected.
This is why the Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) system becomes essential, as the V2X and autonomous vehicles could complement each other. It is the way of passing information from a vehicle to anything that may affect it, and vice versa. Its adaptive cruise control will help the vehicle adapt the speed in heavy traffic to the flow, keeping a safe distance to the vehicle ahead. Such a system will help bring fully autonomous cars come to reality.
Moreover, the ultimate goal of Level 5 autonomy is all about safety. In order for this to come, we need to give the system revolutionary leaps in high-performance computing and networking. Just as a child needs the “parents unconditional love and care for a long time”, cars need a substantial amount.